Definition: The ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression.

Why it matters: Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Less fluent readers must spend the majority of their mental energy on decoding individual words. Fluent readers, on the other hand, decode words automatically, freeing them to focus attention on the text's meaning.

Features a presentation by Dr. Tim Rasinski, an expert on reading fluency, who emphasizes using poetry and read-alouds to foster a love of reading and to build comprehension skills.

Informs viewer of the purpose of reader's theatre and offers tips on how to use it most effectively in the classroom. For example, it’s important to minimize movement and focus on oral performance.

Offers nine kid-friendly videos that explain the significance of fluency for developing readers in the primary grades. Includes videos of teachers giving instruction on fluency skills.

Reading Rockets >

Provides reading fluency basics and information about how to monitor students' ability to read fluently. Strategies shared include choral, paired, and audio-assisted reading.

Reading Rockets >

Identifies level and length of texts that students should use to practice fluency independently. Instructional guidelines and student activities are offered to master fluency in reading.

Reading Rockets >

Explains prosody in fluent oral reading. Includes a four-level scale, a list of skills for measuring prosody, and instructions for calculating words-correct-per-minute (WCPM) scores.

Reading Rockets >

Offers suggestions and tools for screening and diagnosing fluency. Educators can use Hasbrouck and Tindal's table for grades 1-8 to compare students' WCPM scores to oral fluency norms.

Reading A-Z >

Contains a library of leveled passages for students to read repeatedly for improvement with speed, accuracy, and fluency. Strengthening fluency allows for more focus on comprehension.

K12 Timed Reading Practice features 25 short, engaging nonfiction passages and fictional stories for students to practice timed reading. Measures WPM and reading rate percentiles as students read leveled passages.

Reading Speed/Fluency Builder increases reading speed to meet grade-level requirements by using game-like methods that encourage the player to practice beating the timer. The fun rewards center motivates players.

Technology for Developing Children’s Language and Literacy: Bringing Speech Recognition to the Classroom
M. Adams

Evaluates instructional practices such as choral reading for developing basic reading fluency. Advocates using technology to provide more individualized and guided oral reading practice.

Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension
J. Pikulski and D. Chard

Argues that students develop automaticity of decoding as they progress through Ehri's Four Stages of Reading Development. Includes a set of instructional practices for building fluency.

Reading Fluency Instruction: Moving Beyond Accuracy, Automaticity, and Prosody
T. Rasinski

Emphasizes reading fluently for comprehension rather than just reading rate. Asserts that repeated reading should result in meaningful and expressive reading rather than merely faster reading.

Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How?
D. Willingham

Provides different types of fluency reading assessments, including AIMSweb. Evidence-based instructional methods and programs/ resources to help build fluency are also shared.

A Synthesis of Research on Effective Interventions for Building Reading Fluency with Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities
D. Chard, S. Vaughn, & B. Tyler

Synthesizes research on fluency interventions for early readers with learning disabilities. Students benefit from the modeling of another fluent reader and repeated reading of texts.

The Fluent Reader: Oral & Silent Reading Strategies for Building Fluency, Word Recognition & Comprehension
T. Rasinski

Encourages use of different text genres for teaching fluency and provides detailed oral and independent reading strategies. The book includes a DVD that models these strategies.

Reader's Theater: Reproducible Grades 2-6
S. Vaughn

Includes reproducible scripts for students in grades 2-6 to improve fluency via engagement in readers’ theater.  Students play roles and build fluency through repeated practice.



Adams, M.J. (2011). Technology for developing children’s language and literacy: Bringing speech recognition to the classroom. New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. 

Chard, D., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(5), 386-406. 

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. 

Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: The bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58(6), 510-519. 

Rasinski, T. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 704-706. 

Rasinski, T. (2010). The fluent reader: Oral & silent reading strategies for building fluency, word recognition & comprehension. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

Reader's theater: Reproducible grades 2-6. (2004). Orlando, FL: Steck-Vaughn.